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IEC 62133-2012 含碱性或非酸性电解液的二次单体电池和电池

来源: | 时间:2013-4-7 14:08:00 |  【字号:

 

IEC 62133-2012 Secondary cells and batteries containing alkaline or other non-acid electrolytes -Safety requirements for portable sealed secondary cellsand for batteries made from them, for use in portable applications

7.Specific requirements and tests (nickel systems)

试验项目

章节号

标准要求

Charging procedure for test purposes

7.1

Unless otherwise stated in this standard, the charging procedure for test purposes is carried out in an ambient temperature of 20±5, using the method declared by the manufacturer.

Prior to charging, the battery shall have been discharged at 20±5at a constant current of 0,2It A down to a specified final voltage.

Continuous low-rate charging (cells)

7.2.1

aRequirementA continuous low-rate charge shall not cause fire or explosion.

bTestFully charged cells are subjected for 28 days to a charge as specified by the manufacturer

cAcceptance criteriaNo fire, no explosion.

Vibration

7.2.2

a) RequirementsVibration encountered during transportation shall not cause leakage, fire or explosion.

b) TestFully charged cells or batteries are vibration-tested under the following test conditions and the sequence in table 3. A simple harmonic motion is applied to the cells or batteries with an amplitude of 0.76 mm, and a total maximum excursion of 1.52 mm. The frequency is varied at the rate of 1 Hz/min between the limits of 10 Hz and 55 Hz. The entire range of frequencies (1 0 Hz to 55 Hz) and return (55Hz to 10 Hz) is traversed in 90 m in ± 5 m in for each mounting position (direction of vibration). The vibration is applied in each of three mutually perpendicular directions, in the sequence specified below.

Step 1: Verify that the measured voltage is typical of the charged product being tested.

Steps 2-4: Apply the vibration as specified in Table 3.

Step 5: Rest cell for 1 h, and then make a visual inspection.

c) Acceptance criteriaNo fire, no explosion, no leakage

step

Rest time (h)

Vibration timemin

Visual examination

1

——

——

Pre-test

2

——

90±5

——

3

——

90±5

——

4

——

90±5

——

5

1

——

Post-test

 

Moulded case stress at high ambient temperature (batteries)

7.2.3

a) Requirement

Internal components of batteries shall not be exposed during use at high temperature.

b) Test

Fully charged batteries are exposed to a moderately high temperature to evaluate case integrity. The battery is placed in an air circulating oven at a temperature of 70 ± 2. The batteries remain in the oven for 7 h, after which they are removed and allowed to return to room temperature.

c) Acceptance criteria

No physical distortion of the battery case resulting in exposure of internal components.

Temperature cycling

7.2.4

a) Requirements

Repeated exposure to high and low temperatures shall not cause fire or explosion.

b) Test according to the following procedure and the profile shown in Figure 1.

Fully charged cells or batteries are subjected to temperature cycling (- 20. +75), in forced draught chambers, according to the following procedure.

Step 1: Place the cells or batteries in an ambient temperature of 75 ± 2 for 4 h.

Step 2: Change the ambient temperature to 20 ± 5 within 30 min and maintain at this temperature for a minimum of 2 h.

Step 3: Change the ambient temperature to -20 ± 2 within 30 min and maintain at this temperature for 4 h.

Step 4: Change the ambient temperature to 20 ± 5 within 30 min and maintain at this temperature for a minimum of 2 h.

Step 5: Repeat steps 1 to 4 for a further four cycles.

Step 6: After the fifth cycle, store the cells or batteries and check after a rest period of at least 24 h.

NOTE This test can be performed in a single chamber whose temperature is changed or in three separate chambers at three different test temperatures.

c) Acceptance criteria

No fire, no explosion, no leakage.

Incorrect installation (cells)

7.3.1

a) Requirements

The incorrect installation of a single cell in a multi-cell application shall not cause fire or explosion

b) Test

Fully charged cells are evaluated under conditions in which one of the cells is incorrectly installed. Four fully charged single cells of the same brand, type, size and age are connected in series with one of the four cells reversed. The resultant assembly is connected across a resistor of 1 Ω until the vent opens or until the temperature of the reversed cell returns to ambient temperature. Alternatively, a stabilized d.c. power supply can be used to simulate the conditions imposed on the reversed cell.

c) Acceptance criteria

No fire, no explosion

External short circuit

7.3.2

a) Requirements

Short-circuiting of the positive and negative terminals shall not cause fire or explosion.

b) Test

Two sets of fully charged cells or batteries are stored in an ambient temperature of 20 ± 5 and +55 ± 5 respectively. Each cell or battery is then short-circuited

by connecting the positive and negative terminals with a total external resistance of 80 mΩ± 20 mΩ. The cells or batteries remain on test for 24 h or until the case temperature declines by 20 % of the maximum temperature rise, whichever is the sooner.

c) Acceptance criteria

No fire, no explosion.

Free fall

7.3.2

a) Requirements

Dropping a cell or battery (for example, from a bench top) shall not cause fire or explosion.

b)Test

Each fully charged cell or battery is dropped three times from a height of 1.0 m onto a concrete floor. The cells or batteries are dropped so as to obtain impacts in random orientations. After the test, the sample shall be put on rest for a minimum of one hour and then a visual inspection shall be performed.

c) Acceptance criteria

No fire, no explosion.

Mechanical shock (crash hazard)

7.3.4

a) Requirements

Shocks encountered during handling or transportation shall not cause fire, explosion or leakage.

b) Test

The fully charged cell or battery is secured to the testing machine by means of a rigid mount which will support all mounting surfaces of the cell or battery. The cell or battery is subjected to a total of three shocks of equal magnitude. The shocks are applied in each of three mutually perpendicular directions. At least one of them shall be perpendicular to a flat face. For each shock the cell or battery is accelerated in such a manner that during the initial 3 ms the minimum average acceleration is 75 gn· The peak acceleration shall be between 125 gn and 175 gn. Cells or batteries are tested in an ambient temperature of 20 ± 5. After the test, the sample shall be put on rest for a minimum of one hour and then a visual inspection shall be performed.

c) Acceptance criteria

No fire, no explosion, no leakage.

Thermal abuse (cells)

7.3.5

a) Requirements

An extremely high temperature shall not cause fire or explosion.

b) Test

Each fully charged cell, stabilized at room temperature, is placed in a gravity or circulating air-convection oven. The oven temperature is raised at a rate of 5/min ± 2/min to a temperature of 130 ± 2. The cell remains at this temperature for 10 min before the test is discontinued.

c) Acceptance criteria

No fire, no explosion.

Crushing of cells

7.3.6

a) Requirements

Severe crushing of a cell (for example, during disposal in a waste compactor) shall not cause fire or explosion.

b) Test

Each fully charged cell is crushed between two flat surfaces. The force for the crushing is applied by a hydraulic ram exerting a force of 13 kN ± 1 kN. The crushing is performed in a manner that will cause the most adverse result. Once the maximum force has been applied, or an abrupt voltage drop of one-third of the original voltage has been obtained, the force is released.

A cylindrical or prismatic cell is crushed with its longitudinal axis parallel to the flat surfaces of the crushing apparatus . To test both wide and narrow sides of prismatic cells, a second set of cells is tested, rotated 90°around their longitudinal axes compared to the first set.

c) Acceptance criteria

No fire, no explosion.

Low pressure (cells)

 

7.3.7

a) Requirements

Low pressure (for example, during transportation in an aircraft cargo hold) shall not cause fire or explosion.

b) Test

Each fully charged cell is placed in a vacuum chamber, in an ambient temperature of 20 ± 5. Once the chamber has been sealed, its internal pressure is gradually reduced to a pressure equal to or less than 11.6 kPa (this simulates an altitude of 15240 m) held at that value for 6 h.

c) Acceptance criteria

No fire, no explosion, no leakage

Overcharge

7.3.8

a) Requirements

Charging for longer periods and at a higher rate than specified by the manufacturer shall not cause fire or explosion.

b) Test

A discharged cell or battery is subjected to a high-rate charge of 2.5 times the recommend charging current for a time that produces a 250 % charge input (250 % of rated capacity).

c) Acceptance criteria

No fire, no explosion.

Forced discharge (cells)

7.3.9

a) Requirements

A cell in a multi-cell application shall withstand polarity reversal without causing fire or explosion.

b) Test

A discharged cell is subjected to a reverse charge at 1 It A for 90 min.

c) Acceptance criteria

No fire, no explosion.

8.Spec ific requirements and tests (lithium sy stems)

试验项目

章节号

标准要求

Charging procedures for test purposes

8.1

7.2.1

8.1.1 First procedure

(This charging procedure applies to subclauses other than those specified in 8.1.2)

Unless otherwise stated in this standard, the charging procedure for test purposes is carried out in an ambient temperature of 20 ± 5, using the method declared by the manufacturer.

Prior to charging, the battery shall have been discharged at 20 ± 5 at a constant current of 0.2 It A down to a specified final voltage.

8.1.2 Second procedure

(This charging procedure applies only to 8.3. 1, 8.3.2, 8.3.4, 8.3.5, and 8.3.9)

After stabilization for 1 to 4 hours respectively at ambient temperature of highest test temperature and lowest test temperature, as specified in Table 4 (currently for lithium cobalt oxide), cells are charged by using the upper limited charging voltage and maximum charging current, until the charging current is reduced to 0.05It A. using a constant voltage charging method.

Table 4- Condition of charging procedure

Upper limit

charging voltage

Maximum charging current

Charging temp. Upper limit

Charging temp Lower limit

4,25 V/cell

Specified by the manufacturer

of cells

45

10

If a cell's specified upper and/or lower charging temperature exceeds values for the upper and/or lower limit test temperatures of Table 4, the cell shall be charged, and if applicable tested, at the specified values plus 5 for the upper limit and minus 5for the lower limit. The cells shall fulfil the criteria of 8.3. 1, 8.3.2, 8.3.4, 8.3.5, and 8.3.9. There shall also be a valid rationale provided regarding how the cell's safety is ensured. (See Figure A.1 )

NOTE 1 In case of a dillerent upper limit charging voltage (i.e. other than for lithium cobalt oxide systems at 4,25 V), it can be appropriate to adjust the upper limit charging voltage and upper limit charging temperatures accordingly to fulfil the criteria of 8.3.1, 8.3.2. 8.3.4, 8.3.5. and 8.3.9 and have a valid rationale to ensure the safety of the cell. (See Figure A.1)

NOTE 2 New chemistries systems will be incorporated in the standard when new data becomes available.

Continuous charging at constant voltage (cells)

8.2.1

a) Requirement

A continuous charge at constant voltage shall not cause fire or explosion.

b) Test

Fully charged cells are subjected for 7 days to a charge as specified by the manufacturer.

c) Acceptance criteria

No fire, no explosion, no leakage

Moulded case stress at high ambient temperature (battery)

8.2.2

a) Requirement

Internal components of batteries shall not be exposed during use at high temperature.

b) Test

Fully charged batteries, according to the first procedure in 8.1.1, are exposed to a moderately high temperature to evaluate case integrity. The battery is placed in an air circulating oven at a temperature of 70 ± 2. The batteries remain in the oven for 7 h, after which they are removed and allowed to return to room temperature.

c) Acceptance criteria

No physical distortion of the battery case resulting in exposure of internal components.

External short circuit (cell)

8.3.1

a) Requirements

Short-circuiting of the positive and negative terminals of the cell at ambient temperature shall not cause fire or explosion.

b) Test

Fully charge each cell according to the second procedure in 8.1.2 The cell is short circuited by connecting the positive and negative terminals with a total external resistance of 80 mΩ ± 20 mΩ. The cell remains on test for 24 h or until the surface temperature declines by 20% of the maximum temperature rise, whichever is the sooner.

c) Acceptance criteria

No fire, no explosion.

External short circuit {battery)

8.3.2

a) Requirements

Short-circuiting of the positive and negative terminals of the battery pack shall not cause fire or explosion.

b) Test

Each fully charged battery according to the second procedure in 8.1.2 is stored in an ambient temperature 55 ± 5. The battery pack is then short-circuited by connecting the positive and negative terminals with a total external resistance of 80 mΩ ± 20 mΩ. The battery pack remains on test for 24 h or until the case temperature of battery pack declines by 20 % of the maximum temperature rise, whichever is the sooner. However, in case of rapid decline in short circuit current, the battery pack should remain on test for an additional one hour after the current reaches a low end steady state condition. This typically refers to a condition where the per cell voltage (series cells only) of the battery is below 0.8 V and is decreasing by less than 0.1 V in a 30-minute period.

c) Acceptance criteria

No fire, no explosion.

Free fall

8.3.3

a) Requirements

Dropping a cell or battery (for example, from a bench top) shall not cause fire or explosion.

b) Test

Free fall test is conducted at an ambient temperature of 20 ± 5, by using batteries that are charged to a fu lly charged state, in accordance with the first procedure in 8.1.1. Each fully charged cell or battery is dropped three times from a height of 1.0 m onto a concrete floor. The cells or batteries are dropped so as to obtain impacts in random orientations. After the test, the cell or battery shall be put on rest for a minimum of one hour and then a visual inspection shall be performed.

c) Acceptance criteria

No fire, no explosion

Thermal abuse (cells)

8.3.4

a) Requirements

An extremely high temperature shall not cause fire or explosion.

b) Test

Each fully charged cell, according to the second procedure in 8.1.2, is placed in a gravity or circulating air-convection oven. The oven temperature is raised at a rate of 5/min ± 2/min to a temperature of 130 ± 2. The cell remains at this temperature for 10 min (30 min for larger cells) before the test is terminated.

c) Acceptance criteria

No fire, no explosion

Over- charging of battery

8.3.6

a) Requirements

Charging for longer periods than specified by the manufacturer shall not cause fire or explosion

b) Test

The test shall be carried out in an ambient temperature of +20 ± 5. Each test battery shall be discharged at a constant current of 0.2 It A, to a final discharge voltage specified by the manufacturer. Sample batteries shall then be charged at a constant current of 2.0 It A, using a supply voltage (not to exceed the maximum voltage supplied by the recommended charger - if value not available it shall be 5,0 V per cell) sufficient to maintain this current of 2.0 It A throughout the duration of the test or until the supply voltage is reached. A thermocouple shall be attached to each test battery. For battery packs, the temperature shall be measured on the battery pack casing. The test shall be continued until the temperature of the outer casing reaches steady state conditions (less than 10 change in 30-minute period) or returns to ambient.

c) Acceptance criteria

No fire, no explosion.

Forced discharge (cells)

8.3.7

a) Requirements

A cell in a multi-cell application shall withstand polarity reversal without causing fire or explosion.

b) Test

A discharged cell is subjected to a reverse charge at 1It A for 90 min.

c) Acceptance criteria

No fire, no explosion.

Transport tests

8.3.8

Regulations concerning international transport of lithium ion batteries are based on the UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods. Testing requirements are defined in the UN Manual of Tests & Criteria. As regulations are subject to change, the latest editions should be consulted. For reference, transportation tests are also given in IEC 62281.Manufacturer's documentation can be provided to demonstrate compliance.

Design evaluation- Forced internal short circuit (cells)

8.3.9

a) Requirements

Forced internal short circuit test for cylindrical cells and prismatic cells shall not cause fire. Cell manufacturers shall keep a record to meet the requirements. A new design evaluation shall be done by the cell manufacturer after testing is conducted by the cell manufacturer or a third party test house. This country specific test which is only applicable to France, Japan, Korea and Switzerland and is not required on polymer cells.

b) Test

The forced internal short circuit test is performed in a chamber at +10 and +45 (ambient internal chamber temperature) according to the following procedure.

1) Number of samples

This test shall be carried out on five secondary (rechargeable) lithium-ion cells.

2) Charging procedure

i) Conditioning charge and discharge

The sample shall be charged at 20 •c ± 5 •c according to the manufacturer's recommendation. The sample is then discharged at 20 •c ± 5 •c at a constant current of 0,2 11 A down to the final voltage specified by the manufacturer.

ii) Storage procedure

Test cell shall be stored for 1 h to 4 h at an ambient temperature as specified in Table 5.

iii) Ambient temperature

Table 5- Ambient temperature for cell test a

 

iv) Charging procedure for forced internal short test Test cell shall be charged at an ambient temperature as specified in Table 5, at the upper limited charging voltage at the constant current specified by the manufacturer, continue charging at constant voltage at upper limited charge current drops to 0.05 It A.

3) Pressing the winding core with nickel particle Temperature-controlled oven and special press equipment are needed for the test. Moving part of the press equipment shall move at constant speed and can be stopped immediately when short-circuit is detected

i) Preparation for the test

A The temperature of the oven is controlled as specified in Table 5. Samples preparation guidance is provided in Annex A, Clause A.5 and in Figure A.5 and Figure A.S. Put aluminum-laminated bag with winding core and nickel particle into the oven for 45 ± 15 min.

B Remove the winding core from sealed package and attach terminals for voltage measurement and thermo couple for temperature on the surface of the winding core. Set the winding core under the pressure equipment to locating the point of the place of the nickel particle under the pressing jig.

Remark: To prevent evaporation of electrolyte, finish the work within 10 min

from removing the winding core from the oven for temperature conditioning to

closing the oven door where the equipment is located.

C Remove insulating sheet and close the oven door.

ii) Internal short circuit

A Confirm that the winding core surface temperature is as defined in Table 5 and

then starts the test.

B Bottom surfac·e of moving part of the press equipment is made of Nitrile rubber

or Acryl, which is put on the 10 mm x 10 mm sta inless steel shaft. The detail of

pressing jigs shall be shown in Figure 2. Nitrile rubber bottom surface is for

cylindrical cell test. For prismatic test 5 mm x 5 mm (2 mm thickness) Acryl is

put on the Nitrile rubber. The fixture is moved down at the speed of 0,1 mm/s

monitoring the cell voltage. When voltage drop caused by the internal shortcircuit

is detected, stop descent immediately and keep pressing jig in the position for 30 s and then release the pressure. Voltage is monitored m-ore than

100 times per second and if voltage is dropped more than 50 m V compare to

the initial voltage, it is defined to internal short circuit has occurred. If the

pressure reaches BOO N for cylindrical cell and 400 N for prismatic cell, stop

descent immediately and then keep in the position.

 


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