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IEC 60086-4-2007《原电池——第4部分:锂电池的安全要求 Primary batteries –Part 4: Safety of lithium batteries》

来源: | 时间:2012-5-30 14:36:00 |  【字号:
 

IEC60086-4-2007

 Primary batteries –Part 4: Safety of lithium batteries

试验项目

章节号

标准要求

Test A: Altitude

6.4.1

a) Purpose

This test simulates air transport under low pressure conditions.

b) Test procedure

Test cells and batteries shall be stored at a pressure of 11.6 kPa or less for at least 6 h at ambient temperature.

c) Requirements

There shall be no mass loss, no leakage, no venting, no short-circuit, no rupture, no explosion and no fire during this test.

Test B: Thermal cycling

6.4.2

a) Purpose

This test assesses cell and battery seal integrity and that of their internal electrical connections. The test is conducted using temperature cycling.

b) Test procedure

Test cells and batteries shall be stored for at least 6 h at a test temperature of 75 °C, followed by storage for at least 6 h at a test temperature of –40 °C. The maximum time for transfer to each temperature shall be 30 min. Each test cell and battery shall undergo this procedure 10 times. This is then followed by storage for at least 24 h at ambient temperature.

For large cells and batteries the duration of exposure to the test temperatures shall be at least 12 h instead of 6 h.

The test shall be conducted using the test cells and batteries previously subjected to the altitude test.

c) Requirements

There shall be no mass loss, no leakage, no venting, no short-circuit, no rupture, no explosion and no fire during this test.

Test C: Vibration

6.4.3

 

a) Purpose

This test simulates vibration during transport. The test condition is based on the range of vibrations as given by ICAO [2].

b) Test procedure

Test cells and batteries shall be firmly secured to the platform of the vibration machine without distorting them and in such a manner as to faithfully transmit the vibration. Test cells and batteries shall be subjected to sinusoidal vibration according to Table 5. This cycle shall be repeated 12 times for a total of 3 h for each of three mutually perpendicular mounting positions. One of the directions shall be perpendicular to the terminal face.

The test shall be conducted using the test cells and batteries previously subjected to the thermal cycling test.

Frequency range

Amplitudes

Duration of logarithmic

sweep cycle

(7 Hz – 200 Hz – 7 Hz)

Axis

Number

Of cycles

from

to

f1 = 7 Hz

f2

a1 = 1 gn

gn

X

12

f2

F3

s = 0,8 mm

Y

12

F3

f4 = 200 Hz

a2 = 8 gn

Z

12

and back to f1 = 7 Hz

Total

36

NOTE Vibration amplitude is the maximum absolute value of displacement or acceleration. For example, a displacement amplitude of 0,8 mm corresponds to a peak-to-peak displacement of 1,6 mm.

Key

f1, f4: lower and upper frequency

f2, f3: cross-over frequencies (f2 ≈ 17,62 Hz, f3 ≈ 49,84 Hz)

a1, a2: acceleration amplitude

s: displacement amplitude

c) Requirements

There shall be no mass loss, no leakage, no venting, no short-circuit, no rupture, no explosion and no fire during this test.

Test D: Shock

6.4.4

a) Purpose

This test simulates rough handling during transport.

b) Test procedure

Test cells and batteries shall be secured to the testing machine by means of a rigid mount which will support all mounting surfaces of each test cell or battery. Each test cell or battery shall be subjected to 3 shocks in each direction of three mutually perpendicular mounting positions of the cell or battery for a total of 18 shocks. For each shock, the parameters given in Table 6 shall be applied.

Table 6 – Shock parameters

 

Waveform

Peak

acceleration

Pulse duration

Number of shocks

per half axis

Cells or batteries except large ones

Half

150 gn

6 ms

3

Large cells or batteries

Half

50 gn

11 ms

3

The test shall be conducted using the test cells and batteries previously subjected to the vibration test.

c) Requirements

There shall be no mass loss, no leakage, no venting, no short-circuit, no rupture, no explosion and no fire during this test.

Test E: External short-circuit

6.5.1

a) Purpose

This test simulates conditions resulting in an external short-circuit.

b) Test procedure

The test cell or battery shall be stabilized at an external case temperature of 55 °C and then subjected to a short-circuit condition with a total external resistance of less than 0,1 Ω at 55 °C. This short-circuit condition is continued for at least 1 h after the cell or battery external case temperature has returned to 55 °C.

The test sample shall be observed for a further 6 h.

The test shall be conducted using the test samples previously subjected to the shock test.

c) Requirements

There shall be no excessive temperature rise, no rupture, no explosion and no fire during this test and within the 6 h of observation.

Test F: Impact

6.5.2

a) Purpose

This test simulates an internal short-circuit.

NOTE The impact test has been included in IEC 62281 [11] for the purpose of harmonization with the transport tests described in the UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods, Manual of Tests andCriteria [17]. It has been evaluated by the IEC and found to be more appropriately described as a misuse test than a transport test. It could not be verified that it truly simulates an internal short-circuit condition. It was, however, found that for some cell designs, the crush test is more appropriate to simulate an internal short-circuit condition .Therefore, the crush test is provided as an alternative test method to simulate an internal short-circuit.

b) Test procedure

The test cell or component cell is placed on a flat plate. A steel bar with a diameter of 15,8 mm is placed across the centre of the test sample. A mass of 9,1 kg is dropped from a height of 61 cm ± 2,5 cm onto the bar on the test sample.

A cylindrical or prismatic cell is impacted with its longitudinal axis parallel to the flat plate and perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the bar lying across the centre of the test sample. A prismatic cell is also rotated 90° around its longitudinal axis so that both the wide and narrow sides will be subjected to the impact. A button cell is impacted with its flat surface parallel to the flat plate and the bar lying across its centre.

Each test cell or component cell shall be subjected to one impact only.

The test sample shall be observed for a further 6 h.

The test shall be conducted using test cells or component cells that have not been previously subjected to other tests.

The test shall not be applied to cells where it does not appropriately simulate an internal short-circuit condition.

c) Requirements

There shall be no excessive temperature rise, no explosion and no fire during this test and within the 6 h of observation.

Test G: Crush

 

6.5.3

a) Purpose

This test simulates an internal short-circuit.

NOTE For some cell designs, the crush test is a more appropriate simulation of an internal short-circuit than the impact test. It is therefore provided as an alternative test method for this purpose.

b) Test procedure

The cell or component cell shall be crushed between two flat surfaces. The force shall be applied by a vice or by a hydraulic ram with a round piston. The crushing shall be gradual with a speed of approximately 1,5 cm / s at the first point of contact. The crushing shall be continued until the applied force reaches approximately 13 kN.

EXAMPLE The force shall be applied by a hydraulic ram with a 32 mm diameter piston until a pressure of 17 MPa is reached on the hydraulic ram.

Once the maximum pressure has been obtained, the pressure shall be released.

A cylindrical cell shall be crushed with its longitudinal axis parallel to the flat surfaces of the crushing apparatus. A prismatic cell shall be crushed by applying the force in the direction of one of the two axes perpendicular to its longitudinal axis, and, separately, by applying the force in the direction of the other one of these two axes. A button/coin cell shall be crushed by applying the force on its flat surfaces.

Each test cell or component cell shall be subjected to one crush only.

The test sample shall be observed for a further 6 h.

The test shall be conducted using test cells or component cells that have not been previously subjected to other tests.

The test shall only be applied to cells where test F, Impact, does not appropriately simulate an internal short-circuit condition.

c) Requirements

There shall be no excessive temperature rise, no explosion and no fire during this test and within the 6 h of observation.

Test H: Forced discharge

6.5.4

 

a) Purpose

This test evaluates the ability of a cell to withstand a forced discharge condition.

b) Test procedure

Each cell shall be force discharged at ambient temperature by connecting it in series with a 12 V direct current power supply at an initial current equal to the maximum continuous discharge current specified by the manufacturer.

The specified discharge current is obtained by connecting a resistive load of appropriate size and rating in series with the test cell and the direct current power supply. Each cell shall be force discharged for a time interval td equal to

 td = Cr / Ii

where

td is the test duration;

Cr is the rated capacity;

Ii is the initial test current.

The test shall be conducted with fully discharged test batteries.

The test cells shall be observed for 7 days after the forced discharge condition has been discontinued.

c) Requirements

There shall be no explosion and no fire during this test and the 7 days of observation.

Test I: Abnormal charging

 

6.5.5

a) Purpose

This test simulates the condition when a battery is fitted within a device and is exposed to a reverse voltage from an external power supply, for example memory back-up equipment with

a defective diode (see 7.1.1). The test condition is based upon UL 1642 [15].

b) Test procedure

Each test battery shall be subjected to a charging current of three times the abnormal charging current Ic specified by the battery manufacturer by connecting it in opposition to a d.c. power supply. Unless the power supply allows for setting the current, the specified charging current shall be obtained by connecting a resistor of the appropriate size and rating in series with the battery.

The test duration shall be calculated using the formula:

td = 2,5 × Cn / (3 × Ic)

where

td is the test duration. In order to expedite the test, it is permitted to adjust the test parameters such that td does not exceed 7 days;

Cn is the nominal capacity;

Ic is the abnormal charging current declared by the manufacturer for this test.

c) Requirements

There shall be no explosion and no fire during this test.

Test J: Free fall

6.5.6

a) Purpose

This test simulates the situation when a battery is accidentally dropped. The test condition is based upon IEC 60068-2-32 [7].

b) Test procedure

The test batteries shall be dropped from a height of 1 m onto a concrete surface. Each test battery shall be dropped six times, a prismatic battery once from each of its six faces, a round battery twice in each of the three axes shown in Figure 3. The test batteries shall be stored for 1 h afterwards.

The test shall be conducted with undischarged test cells and batteries.

c) Requirements

There shall be no venting, no explosion and no fire during this test and within the 1 h of observation.

Test K: Thermal abuse

6.5.7

a) Purpose

This test simulates the condition when a battery is exposed to an extremely high temperature.

b) Test procedure

A test battery shall be placed in an oven and the temperature raised at a rate of 5 °C/min to a temperature of 130 °C at which the battery shall remain for 10 min.

c) Requirements

There shall be no explosion and no fire during this test.

Test L: Incorrect installation

6.5.8

a) Purpose

This test simulates the condition when one single cell battery in a set is reversed.

b) Test procedure

A test battery is connected in series with three undischarged additional single cell batteries of the same type in such a way that the terminals of the test battery are connected in reverse.

The resistance of the interconnecting circuit shall be less than or equal to 0,1 Ω.

The circuit shall be completed for 24 h or until the battery case temperature has returned to ambient.

c) Requirements

There shall be no explosion and no fire during this test.

Test M: Overdischarge

6.5.9

a) Purpose

This test simulates the condition when one discharged single cell battery is connected in series with other undischarged single cell batteries. The test further simulates the use of batteries in motor powered appliances where, in general, currents over 1 A are required.

NOTE CR17345 and CR15H270 batteries are widely used in motor powered appliances where currents over 1 A are required. The current for non standardized batteries may be different.

b) Test procedure

Each test battery shall be predischarged to 50 % depth of discharge. It shall then be connected in series with three undischarged additional single cell batteries of the same type.

A resistive load R1 is connected in series with the assembly of batteries in Figure 5 where R1 is taken from Table 7.

The test shall be continued for 24 h or until the battery case temperature has returned to ambient.

The test shall be repeated with 75 % predischarged test batteries.

Table 7 – Resistive load for overdischarge

Battery type

Resistive load R1

Ω

CR17345

8.20

CR15H270

8.20

NOTE Table to be modified or expanded when additional batteries of a spiral

construction are standardized.

EXAMPLE When CR17345 and CR15H270 batteries were standardized, R1 was determined from the end voltage of the assembly in Figure 5, using the formula

R = 4 × 2,0 V / 1 A

where 2,0 V is the end voltage taken from the specification tables in IEC 60086-2; and 1 A is the test current.

R1 was then found by rounding R to the nearest value in Table 5 of IEC 60086-1.

c) Requirements

There shall be no explosion and no fire during this test.

Marking

9

9.1 General

With the exception of small batteries (see 9.2), each battery shall be marked with the following information:

a) designation;

b) expiration of a recommended usage period or year and month or week of manufacture.The year and month or week of manufacture may be in code;

c) polarity of terminals (when applicable);

d) nominal voltage;

e) name or trade mark of the manufacturer or supplier;

f) cautionary advice;

g) caution for ingestion of swallowable batteries (see also 7.2 m)).

9.2 Small batteries

Batteries, whose external surface area is too small to accommodate the markings shown in 9.1, shall show, on the battery, the designation of 9.1 a) and polarity of 9.1 c). All other

markings shown in 9.1 may be given on the immediate package instead of on the battery.

 

 

 

 

 

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