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UL 2054−2009 《家用和商用电池》

来源:吴江电池产品检测实验室 | 时间:2011-10-12 16:31:00 |  【字号:
 

 

UL 2054−2009 Household and Commercial Batteries

 

 

试验项目

章节号

标准要求

Short-Circuit Test

 

9

9.1 Cells shall comply with 9.1 – 9.6.

Revised 9.1 effective November 11, 2011

9.2 Each fully charged test sample cell, in turn, is to be short-circuited by connecting the positive and negative terminals of the battery with a circuit load having a resistance load of 80 ±20 m ohm. The temperature of the battery case is to be recorded during the test. The battery is to discharge until a fire or explosion is obtained, or until it has reached a discharged state of less than 0.2 volts and/or the case temperature has returned to ±10°C (±18°F) of ambient temperature.

Revised 9.2 effective November 11, 2011

9.3 Tests are to be conducted at 20 ±5°C (68 ±9°F), and at 55 ±2°C (131 ±4°F). The cells are to reach equilibrium at 20 ±5°C (68 ±9°F) or 55 ±2°C (131 ±4°F) as applicable, before the terminals are connected.

Revised 9.3 effective November 11, 2011

9.4 A cell is to be tested individually unless the cell manufacturer indicates that it is intended for use in series or parallel. For series or parallel use, additional tests on five sets of batteries are to be conducted using the maximum number of cells to be covered for each configuration as specified by the manufacturer.

Revised 9.4 effective November 11, 2011

9.5 A cell is to be tested without the assistance of protective devices unless such protective devices are integral to the cell construction. When a protective device actuates during the test, the test shall be repeated with the cell connected to the maximum load that does not cause the protective device to open.

Revised 9.5 effective November 11, 2011

9.6 The samples shall not explode or catch fire. The temperature of the exterior cell or battery casing shall not exceed 150°C (302°F).

9.7 Battery packs shall comply with 9.8 – 9.12.

Exception: Battery packs consisting of a single cell, in which the cell has already been subjected to the tests in 9.1 – 9.6 need not be subjected to the tests in 9.8 – 9.12.

Revised 9.7 effective November 11, 2011

9.8 Each fully charged test sample battery pack, in turn, is to be short-circuited by connecting the positive and negative terminals of the battery with a circuit load having a resistance load of 80 ±20 m ohm. The

temperature of the battery case is to be recorded during the test. The battery is to discharge until a fire or explosion is obtained, or until it is completely discharged and/or the cell case temperature has returned to ±10°C (±18°F) of ambient temperature.

Revised 9.8 effective November 11, 2011

9.9 Tests are to be conducted at 20 ±5°C (68 ±9°F) and at 55 ±5°C (131 ±4°F). The batteries are to reach equilibrium at 20 ±5°C (68 ±9°F) or 55 ±5°C (131 ±4°F), as applicable, before the terminals are onnected.

Revised 9.9 effective November 11, 2011

9.10 Battery pack constructions are to be subjected to a single fault across any protective device in the load circuit of the battery under test. When protective devices actuate during the test, the test shall be repeated with the battery pack connected to the maximum load that does not cause the protective devices to open.

Exception: A positive temperature coefficient device which complies with the tests specified in Standard for Thermistor-Type Devices, UL 1434, the Standard for Automatic Electrical Controls for Household and Similar Use, Part 1: General Requirements, UL 60730-1A, or other protective devices determined to be reliable, may remain in the circuit without being faulted. See Appendix A for additional component standards.

Revised 9.10 effective November 11, 2011

9.11 One of the above five test sample battery packs, tested at 20 ±5°C (68 ±9°F) shall be evaluated with the following additional conditions in place. The terminals are to be subjected to a short circuit condition with a minimum length of 16 AWG (1.3 mm2) bare copper wire. The test is to be conducted on a tissue paper covered soft wood surface and the sample battery pack and bare conductor is to be covered with a single layer of cheesecloth.

9.12 For all samples tested, the samples shall not explode or catch fire and the tests shall not result in chemical leaks caused by cracking, rupturing or bursting of the cell casing. The temperature of the internal cell casings shall not exceed 150°C (302°F). For battery pack samples tested in accordance with 9.11, the cheesecloth and tissue paper shall not catch fire.

Revised 9.12 effective November 11, 2011

 

Abnormal Charging Test

 

10

10.1 Primary batteries (for example: cells, single cell batteries, or battery packs) shall comply with 10.2 –10.5.

Revised 10.1 effective November 11, 2011

10.2 Batteries discharged to the manufacturer’s rated capacity are to be used for this test. The batteries are to be tested in an ambient temperature of 20 ±5°C (68 ±9°F).

Revised 10.2 effective November 11, 2011

10.3 Each fully charged test sample battery is to be subjected to a constant charging current of three times the current, Ic, specified by the manufacturer by connecting it in opposition to a dc-power supply.

The test time is to be calculated using the formula: Tc=2.5C/3Ic

In which:

tc  is the charging time in hours,

C  is the capacity of battery in ampere-hours, and

Ic  is the maximum charging current, in amperes, specified by the manufacturer.

The minimum charging time is to be 7 hours.

Exception: At the manufacturer’s discretion, test currents greater than the specified three times rated Ic

can be applied to expedite the test timeframe, with the minimum charging times as 7 hours.

Revised 10.3 effective November 11, 2011

10.4 When a protective device that has been investigated for the purpose, actuates during the test, the test shall be repeated with the battery supply connected to the maximum load that does not cause the protective device to open. A protective device that has not been investigated for the purpose shall be short-circuited.

10.5 The samples shall not explode or catch fire. For battery pack samples, tests shall not result in chemical leaks caused by cracking, rupturing or bursting of the battery casing.

Revised 10.5 effective November 11, 2011

10.6 Secondary cells shall comply with 10.7 – 10.9.

Revised 10.6 effective November 11, 2011

10.7 The cells are to be tested in an ambient temperature of 20 ±5°C (68 ±9°F). Each battery shall be discharged at a constant current of 0.2 C/1 hour, to a manufacturer specified discharge endpoint voltage.

Revised 10.7 effective November 11, 2011

10.8 The cells are to be charged with a constant maximum specified charger output voltage and a current limit of three times the maximum current Ic, specified by the manufacturer. Charging duration is the time

required to reach the manufacturer’s specified end-of-charge condition plus seven additional hours.

Revised 10.8 effective November 11, 2011

10.9 A cell is to be tested without the assistance of protective devices, unless such protective devices are either integral to the cell constructions or have been investigated for the purpose. A re-settable protective device that actuates during the test shall be allowed to reset and the test shall be resumed, cycling as often as necessary to complete the test. When a protective device operates during the test (whether re-settable or not) the test is repeated with the same charging time, but with the cell connected to the maximum load that does not cause the protective devices to operate. A protective device that is not integral to the cell and that has not been investigated for the purpose is to be short-circuited.

10.9.1 The samples shall not explode or catch fire.

Added 10.9.1 effective November 11, 2011

10.10 Secondary battery packs shall comply with 10.11 – 10.13.

10.11 The batteries are to be tested in an ambient temperature of 20 ±5°C (68 ±9°F). A thermocouple is to be attached to the cells of each test sample battery. Each battery shall be discharged at a constant current of 0.2C/1 hour, to a manufacturer specified discharge endpoint voltage.

Revised 10.11 effective November 11, 2011

10.12 Each of the test sample batteries are to be subjected to the following overcharge conditions, in sequential order.

a) The battery is to be initially charged using a constant current charging mode with a current limit of three times the maximum current Ic, specified by the manufacturer until the maximum specified charger output voltage is reached. At that point, the battery is to be charged with a constant maximum specified charger output voltage and a current limit of three times the maximum current Ic. Charging duration is the time required to reach the manufacturer’s specified end-of-charge condition plus seven additional hours. The temperature on the cell casing shall be monitored. A re-settable protective device such as a PTC that actuates during the test shall be allowed to reset and the test shall be resumed, cycling as often as necessary, but no less than 10 times, to complete the test. Automatic reset devices are allowed to cycle during the test. When an overcurrent protective device operates during the test, the test is repeated with the same charging time, but with the battery connected to the maximum load that does not cause the protective devices to operate.

b) The charge condition in accordance with (a) shall be conducted with each single component fault that is likely to occur in the charging circuit and which would result in overcharging of the battery.

Exception No. 1: A protective device determined to be reliable may remain in the circuit without being faulted. See 2.4 and Appendix A.

Exception No. 2: For batteries without protective devices, the overcharge condition(s) in (b) do not apply.

Revised 10.12 effective November 11, 2011

10.13 The samples shall not explode or catch fire. For battery pack samples, tests shall not result in chemical leaks caused by cracking, rupturing or bursting of the cell casing.

Revised 10.13 effective November 11, 2011

 

Abusive Overcharge Test

 

11

11.1 The batteries are to be tested in an ambient temperature of 20 ±5°C (68 ±9°F).

11.2 Sample batteries are to be subjected to a constant charging current at 10 times the C5 amp rate, using a supply voltage sufficient to maintain the 10 times C5 amp rate throughout the duration of the test. During the test, the temperature is to be measured on the internal cell casing of each sample. The test is to continue until the cell or battery explodes, vents, or a single operation protective device operates, and the temperature of the internal cell casing reaches steady state conditions or returns to ambient. If a PTC or other re-settable protection device operates during the test, it is to be reset a minimum of 10 times during the test. An automatic reset device is allowed to cycle during the test.

Revised 11.2 effective November 11, 2011

11.3 During the tests, batteries supplied with protective devices shall be subjected to a single component fault using any single fault condition which is likely to occur in the charging circuit and which would result in overcharging of the battery.

Exception: Protective devices determined to be reliable, may remain in the circuit without being faulted.

See Appendix A.

Revised 11.3 effective November 11, 2011

11.4 The samples shall not explode or catch fire.

11.5 At least one of the five samples shall be subjected to the test outlined in 11.2 and 11.3 with a constant current charge 5 times the C5 rate (for example: at the C rate) with a supply voltage sufficient to maintain that rate throughout the duration of the test.

Added 11.5 effective November 11, 2011

 

Forced-Discharge Test

 

12

 

12.1 This test is intended for cells that are to be used in multicell applications, such as battery packs. The batteries are to be tested in an ambient temperature of 20 ±5°C (68 ±9°F).

12.2 For multi-cell series configurations without parallel strings a fully discharged cell is to be force-discharged by connecting it in series with fully charged cells of the same kind. The number of fully charged cells to be connected in series with the discharged cell is to equal the total number of cells in the pack less one.

Revised 12.2 effective November 11, 2011

12.3 For multi-cell series configurations with parallel strings, a fully discharged parallel string is to be force-discharged by connecting it in series with fully charged cells of the same kind. The number of fully charged cells to be connected in series with the discharged parallel string is to equal the total number of cells in the pack less the number of cells in the discharged parallel string.

Revised 12.3 effective November 11, 2011

12.4 Each of the five battery packs shall be prepared as described in 12.2 or 12.3, as applicable.

 12.5 Once the completely discharged cells (or string of cells) are connected in series with the specified number of fully charged cells, the resultant battery pack is to be short circuited.

12.6 The positive and negative terminals of the sample are to be connected with a copper wire with a resistance load of 80 ±20 m ohms. The battery is to discharge until a fire or explosion is obtained, or until

it has reached a completely discharged state and the cell case temperature has returned to ±10°C (±18°F)

of ambient temperature.

Revised 12.6 effective November 11, 2011

12.7 During the tests, batteries supplied with protective devices shall be subjected to a single component fault using any single fault condition which is likely to occur in the discharge circuit and which would result in excessive discharge of the battery.

Exception: A positive temperature coefficient device which complies with the applicable tests specified in the Standard for Thermistor-Type Devices, UL 1434 and the Standard for Automatic Electrical Controls for Household and Similar Use, Part 1: General Requirements, UL 60730-1A, or other protective devices determined to be reliable, may remain in the circuit without being faulted. See Appendix A for additional component standards.

Revised 12.7 effective November 11, 2011

12.8 The samples shall not explode or catch fire.

 

Limited Power Source Test

 

13

 

13.1 The batteries are to be tested in an ambient temperature of 20 ±5°C (68 ±9°F).

13.2 A battery intended to be a limited power source shall comply with one of the following:

a) The output is inherently limited in compliance with Table 13.1;

b) An impedance limits the output in compliance with Table 13.1. If a positive temperature coefficient device is used, it shall comply with the Standard for Thermistor-Type Devices, UL 1434, or pass the applicable tests specified in Annex J of IEC 60730-1;

c) An overcurrent protective device is used and the output is limited in compliance with Table 13.2;

d) A regulating network limits the output in compliance with Table 13.1, both under normal operating conditions and after any single fault in the regulating network (open circuit or short circuit); or

e) A regulating network limits the output in compliance with Table 13.1 under normal operating conditions, and an overcurrent protective device limits the output in compliance with Table 13.2 after any single fault in the regulating network (open circuit or short circuit).

 Table 13.1 Limits for inherently limited power sources

Revised Table 13.1 effective November 11, 2011

 

Output voltage Uoc, volts a

Output current Isc,

amperesb, d

Apparent power S, VAc, d

V d.c.

Uoc £ 30

30 < Uoc £ 60

£ 8

£ 150/Uoc

£ 100

£ 100

a Uoc – Open circuit battery voltage with all load circuits disconnected.

b Isc – Maximum output current with any non-capacitive load, including a short circuit, measured 60 s after application of the load.

c S(VA) – Maximum output VA after 60 s of operation with any non-capacitive load including short circuit.

d Measurement of Isc and S are made 5 s after application of the load if protection is by an electronic circuit or a positive

temperature coefficient device, and 60 s in other cases.

Table 13.2

Limits for battery sources not inherently limited (overcurrent protective device required)

 

 

Output Voltage Uoc, voltsa

Output Current Isc,

amperesb

Apparent Power S, VAc

 

Current Rating of

Overcurrent Protective

V d.c. Device, amperesd

V d.c.

£ 20

20 < Uoc £ 30

30 < Uoc £ 60

£ 1000/Uoc

£ 250

 

£ 5

£ 100/Uoc

£ 100/Uoc

a Uoc – Open circuit battery voltage with all load circuits disconnected.

b Isc – Maximum output current with any non-capacitive load, including a short circuit, measured 60 s after application of theload.

c S(VA) – Maximum output VA after 60 s of operation with any non-capacitive load including short circuit.

d The current ratings of overcurrent protective devices are based on fuses and circuit breakers that break the circuit within 120 s with a current equal to 210% of the current rating specified in the table.

13.3 Where an overcurrent protective device is used, it shall be a fuse or a non-adjustable, nonautoreset,electromechanical device.

13.4 Batteries shall be fully charged when conducting the measurements for Uoc and Isc according to Tables 13.1 and 13.2.

13.5 The load referenced in items 2) and 3) of Tables 13.1 and 13.2 shall include the threshold (Isc) and (S) load values indicated in Tables 13.1 and 13.2 as well as a load adjusted to develop maximum current and power transfer respectively. Single faults in a regulating network are applied under all four of these load conditions.

13.6 Batteries that meet the limited power source requirements may be marked ²Limited Power Source² ²LPS² to indicate that they are considered to be a limited power source. Batteries that do not meet these

requirements, regardless of terminal design, shall not be marked to indicate that they are a limited power source and are restricted to applications where a limited power source is not required.

Crush Test

14

 

14.1 The batteries are to be tested in an ambient temperature of 20 ±5°C (68 ±9°F).

 14.2 A battery is to be crushed between two flat surfaces. The force for the crushing is to be applied by a hydraulic ram or similar force mechanism. The flat surfaces are to be brought in contact with the cells and the crushing is to be continued until an applied force of 13 ±1.0 kN (3000 ±224 pounds) is reached. Once the maximum force has been obtained, it is to be released.

Revised 14.2 effective November 11, 2011

14.3 A cylindrical or prismatic battery is to be crushed with its longitudinal axis parallel to the flat surfaces of the crushing apparatus. A prismatic battery is also to be rotated 90 degrees around its longitudinal axis so that both the wide and narrow sides will be subjected to the crushing force. Each sample battery is to be subjected to a crushing force in only one direction. Separate samples are to be used for each test.

14.4 A coin or button battery is to be crushed with the flat surface of the battery parallel with the flat surfaces of the crushing apparatus.

 14.5 The samples shall not explode or catch fire.

Impact Test

 

15

15.1 The batteries are to be tested in an ambient temperature of 20 ±5°C (68 ±9°F).

15.2 A test sample battery is to be placed on a flat surface. A 15.8 ±0.1 mm (5/8 ±0.004 inch) diameter bar is to be placed across the center of the sample. A 9.10 ±0.46 kg (20 ±1 pound) weight is to be dropped from a height of 610 ±25 mm (24 ±1 inch) onto the sample. (See Figure 15.1.)

15.3 A cylindrical or prismatic battery is to be impacted with its longitudinal axis parallel to the flat surface and perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of a 15.8 mm (5/8 inch) diameter curved surface lying across the center of the test sample. A prismatic battery is also to be rotated 90 degrees around its longitudinal axis so that both the wide and narrow sides will be subjected to the impact. Each sample battery is to be subjected to only a single impact. Separate samples are to be used for each test.

15.4 A coin or button battery is to be impacted with the flat surface of the test sample parallel to the flat surface and the 15.8 mm (5/8 inch) diameter curved surface lying across its center.

15.5 The samples shall not explode or catch fire.

 

Shock Test

 

16

16.1 The cell is to be secured to the testing machine by means of a rigid mount which supports all mounting surfaces of the cell. Each cell shall be subjected to a total of three shocks of equal magnitude. The shocks are to be applied in each of three mutually perpendicular directions unless it has only two axes of symmetry in which case only two directions shall be tested. Each shock is to be applied in a direction normal to the face of the cell. For each shock the cell is to be accelerated in such a manner that during the initial 3 milliseconds the minimum average acceleration is 75 g (where g is the local acceleration due to gravity). The peak acceleration shall be between 125 and 175 g. Cells shall be tested at a temperature

of 20 ±5°C (68 ±9°F).

16.2 The samples shall not explode or catch fire.

16.3 The sample shall be examined 6 hours after testing and shall not vent or leak as described in 5.2.

 

Vibration Test

 

17

17.1 The batteries are to be tested in an ambient temperature of 20 ±5°C (68 ±9°F).

17.2 A battery is to be subjected to simple harmonic motion with an amplitude of 0.8 mm (0.03 inch) [1.6 mm (0.06 inch) total maximum excursion].

17.3 The frequency is to be varied at the rate of 1 hertz per minute between 10 and 55 hertz and return in not less than 90 nor more than 100 minutes. The battery is to be tested in three mutually perpendicular directions. For a battery that has only two axes of symmetry, the battery is to be tested perpendicular to each axis.

17.4 The samples shall not explode or catch fire.

17.5 The sample shall be examined 6 hours after testing and shall not vent or leak as described in 5.2.

 

General

 

18

18.1 The batteries are to be tested in an ambient temperature of 20 ±5°C (68 ±9°F).

18.2 Batteries with outer plastic enclosures shall be subjected to the tests described in Sections 19, 20, and 21. Batteries with outer enclosures made from materials other than plastic, shall be subjected to the tests described in Sections 19 and 21.

 

250 N Steady Force Test

 

19

19.1 The batteries are to be tested in an ambient temperature of 20 ±5°C (68 ±9°F).

19.2 External enclosures of the battery pack are to be subjected to a steady force of 250 ±10 N (56 ±2 pounds force) for a period of 5 seconds, applied in turn to the top, bottom and sides of the battery pack enclosure by means of a suitable test tool providing contact over a circular plane surface 30 mm (1.2 inches) in diameter.

19.3 The samples shall not explode or catch fire. The outer battery enclosure shall not crack to the extent that the cells or any protective devices are exposed. Openings in the enclosure created as a result of

application of the 250 N steady force shall meet the criteria of 4.1.5.

Revised 19.3 effective November 11, 2011

19.4 The sample shall be examined 6 hours after testing and shall not vent or leak as described in 5.2.

 

Mold Stress Relief Test

 

20

20.1 Each of three samples are to be placed in a full-draft circulating-air oven maintained at a uniform temperature of 70°C (158°F). The samples are to remain in the oven for 7 hours.

Exception: If the maximum temperature, T, recorded on the battery pack thermoplastic enclosure parts, obtained during the normal temperature test of Section 13A exceeds 60°C (140°F), then the oven temperature is to be maintained at a temperature equal to T + 10°C (50°F).

Revised 20.1 effective November 11, 2011

20.2 Deleted effective November 11, 2011

20.2.1 To prevent hazards from overheating energized cells, samples shall either be fully discharged prior to conditioning or provided with ²dummy² cells, which are representative of the actual cells.

Added 20.2.1 effective November 11, 2011

20.3 After careful removal from the oven and after returning to room temperature following the conditioning described in 20.3, the samples shall show no evidence of mechanical damage that would result in damage to cells or protective circuitry. In addition, the battery enclosures shall not crack, warp, or melt to the extent that the cells or any protective devices are exposed. Openings in the enclosure created as a result of the conditioning shall meet the criteria of 4.1.5.

Revised 20.3 effective November 11, 2011

 

Drop Impact Test

 

21

21.1 The batteries are to be tested in an ambient temperature of 20 ±5°C (68 ±9°F).

Exception: Battery packs employing plastic enclosures that are intended for use in 0°C (32°F) temperatures shall be conditioned for 3 hours at 0°C (or temperature specified if lower than 0°C) prior to conducting the drop test, which shall be conducted immediately after removing the samples from the cold conditioning.

Revised 21.1 effective November 11, 2011

21.2 Each of three samples is to be dropped from a height of 1 m (3.28 ft) so it strikes a concrete surface in the position that is most likely to produce the adverse results in 21.3. Each sample is to be dropped three times.

21.3 The samples shall not explode or catch fire.

21.4 The sample shall be examined 6 hours after testing and shall not vent or leak as described in 5.2, and the integrity of the protective devices shall be maintained.

21.5 The outer battery enclosure shall not crack to the extent that cells or any protective devices are exposed. Openings in the enclosure created as a result of the drop impact(s) shall meet the criteria of 4.1.5.

Revised 21.5 effective November 11, 2011

 

Projectile Test

 

22

22.1 When subjected to the test described in 22.2 – 22.5 no part of an exploding cell or battery shall create a hole in the wire screen cage or penetrate the wire screen cage such that some or all of the cell or battery protrudes through the screen cage.

22.2 Each test sample cell or battery is to be placed on a screen that covers a 102 mm (4 inch) diameter hole in the center of a platform table. The screen is to be constructed of steel wire mesh having 20 openings per inch (25.4 mm) and a wire diameter of 0.43 mm (0.017 inch).

22.3 The screen is to be mounted 38 mm (1-1/2 inch) above a burner. The fuel and air flow rates are to be set to provide a bright blue flame that causes the supporting screen to glow a bright red.

22.4 An eight-sided covered wire cage, 610 mm (2 feet) across and 305 mm (1 foot) high, made from metal screening is to be placed over the test sample. See Figure 22.1. The metal screening is to be constructed from 0.25 mm (0.010 inch) diameter aluminum wire with 16 – 18 wires per inch (25.4 mm) in each direction.

22.5 The sample is to be heated and shall remain on the screen until it explodes or the cell or battery has ignited and burned out. It is not required to secure the sample in place unless it is at risk of falling off the screen before the test is completed. When required, the sample shall be secured to the screen with a single wire tied around the sample.

 

Heating Test

 

23

23.1 The sample shall not explode or catch fire when subjected to the test described in 23.2 – 23.4.

23.2 A battery is to be heated in a gravity convection or circulating air oven with an initial temperature of 20 ±5°C (68 ±9°F).

23.3 The temperature of the oven is to be raised at a rate of 5 ±2°C (9 ±4°F) per minute to a temperature of 130 ±2°C (266 ±4°F) and remain at that temperature for 10 minutes.

Revised 23.3 effective November 11, 2011

23.4 The sample shall return to room temperature (20 ±5°C) and then be examined.

 

Temperature Cycling Test

 

24

24.1 The batteries are to be placed in a test chamber and subjected to the following cycles:

a) Raising the chamber-temperature to 70 ±3°C (158 ±5°F) within 30 minutes and maintaining this temperature for 4 hours.

b) Reducing the chamber temperature to 20 ±3°C (68 ±5°F) within 30 minutes and maintaining this temperature for 2 hours.

c) Reducing the chamber temperature to minus 40 ±3°C (minus 40 ±5°F) within 30 minutes and maintaining this temperature for 4 hours.

d) Raising the chamber temperature to 20 ±3°C (68 ±5°F) within 30 minutes.

e) Repeating the sequence for a further 9 cycles.

f) After the 10th cycle, storing the batteries for a minimum of 24 hours at 20 ±5°C (68 ±9°F) prior to examination.

Revised 24.1 effective November 11, 2011

24.2 The samples shall not explode or catch fire. In addition, the samples shall not vent or leak as described in 5.2.

 

 

 

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