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UN 38.3 第六修订版

来源:吴江电池产品检测实验室 | 时间:2017-2-17 12:26:00 |  【字号:
 

38.3 Lithium metal and lithium ion batteries

38.3.1 Purpose

This section presents the procedures to be followed for the classification of lithium metal and lithium ion cells and batteries (see UN Nos. 3090, 3091, 3480 and 3481, and the applicable special provisions of Chapter 3.3 of the Model Regulations).

38.3.2 Scope

38.3.2.1 All cell types shall be subjected to tests T.l to T.6 and T.8. All non-rechargeable battery types, including those composed of previously tested cells, shall be subjected to tests T.l to T.5. All rechargeable battery types, including those composed of previously tested cells, shall be subjected to tests T.l to T.5 and T.7. In addition, rechargeable single cell batteries with overcharge protection shall be subjected to test T.7. A component cell that is not transported separately from the battery it is part of needs only to be tested according to tests T.6 and T.8. A component cell that is transported separately from the battery shall be subjected to tests T.1 to T.6 and T.8.

试验项目

章节号

标准要求

Test T.1· Altitude simulation

38.3.4.1

Test cells and batteries shall be stored at a pressure of 11.6 kPa or less for at least six hours at ambient temperature (20 ± 5 °C).

Cells and batteries meet this requirement if there is no leakage, no venting, no disassembly, no rupture and no fire and if the open circuit voltage of each test cell or battery after testing is not less than 90% of its voltage immediately prior to this procedure. The requirement relating to voltage is not applicable to test cells and batteries at fully discharged states.

Test T.2: Thermal test

38.3.4.2

This test assesses cell and battery seal integrity and internal electrical connections. The test is conducted using rap id and extreme temperature changes.

Test cells and batteries are to be stored for at least six hours at a test temperature equal to 75 ± 2°C, followed by storage for at least s ix hours at a test temperature equal to- 40 ± 2 °C. The maximum time interval between test temperature extremes is 30 minutes. This procedure is to be repeated until 10 total cycles are complete, after which all test cells and batteries are to be stored for 24 hours at ambient temperature (20 ± 5 °C). For large cells and batteries the duration of exposure to the test temperature extremes should be at least 12 hours.

Cells and batteries meet this requirement if there is no leakage, no venting, no disassembly, no rupture and no fire and if the open circuit voltage of each test cell or battery after testing is not less than 90% of its voltage immediately prior to this procedure. The requirement relating to voltage is not applicable to test cells and batteries at fully discharged states.

Test T. 3: Vibration

38.3.4.3

Cells and batteries are firmly secured to the platform of the vibration machine without distorting the cells in such a manner as to faithfully transmit the vibration. The vibration shall be a sinusoidal waveform with a logarithmic sweep between 7Hz and 200Hz and back to 7Hz traversed in 15 minutes. This cycle shall be repeated 12 times for a total of3 hours for each of three mutually perpendicular mounting positions of the cell. One of the directions of vibration must be perpendicular to the terminal face.

The logarithmic frequency sweep shall differ for cells and batteries with a gross mass of not more than \2 kg (cells and small batteries), and for batteries with a gross mass of more than 12 kg (large batteries).

For cells and small batteries: from 7Hz a peak acceleration of 1 gn is maintained until 18Hz is reached. The amplitude is then maintained at 0.8 mm (1.6 mm total excursion) and the frequency increased until a peak acceleration of 8 g" occurs (approximately 50 Hz). A peak acceleration of 8 g" is then maintained untiI the frequency is increased to 200Hz.

For large batteries: from 7 Hz to a peak acceleration of 1 gn is .maintained until 18 Hz is reached. The amplitude is then maintained at 0.8 mm (1.6 mm total excursion) and the frequency increased until a peak acceleration of2 g" occurs (approximately 25Hz). A peak acceleration of2 gn is then maintained until the frequency is increased to 200Hz.

Cell s and batteries meet this requirement if there is no leakage, no venting, no disassembly,

no rupture and no fire during the test and after the test and if the open circuit voltage of each test cell or battery after testing in its perpendicular mounting position is not less than 90% of its voltage immediately prior to this procedure. The requirement relating to voltage is not applicable to test cells and batteries at fully discharged states.

Test T.4: Shock

38.3 .4.4

Test cell s and batteries shall be secured to the testing machine by means of a rigid mount which will support all mounting surfaces of each test battery.

Each cell shall be subjected to a half-sine shock of peak acceleration of ISO g" and pulse duration of 6 milliseconds. Alternatively, large cells may be subjected to a half-sine shock of peak acceleration of 50 gn and pulse duration of II milliseconds.

Each battery shall be subjected to a half-sine shock of peak acceleration depending on the mass of the battery. The pulse duration shall be 6 milliseconds for small batteries and 11 milliseconds for large batteries. The formulas below are provided to calculate the appropriate minimum peak accelerations.

Each cell or battery shall be subjected to three shocks in the positive direction and to three shocks in the negative direction in each of three mutually perpendicular mounting positions of the cell or battery for a total of 18 shocks.

Cells and batteries meet this requirement if there is no leakage, no venting, no disassembly, no rupture and no fire and if the open circuit voltage of each test cell or battery after testing is not less than 90% of its voltage immediately prior to this procedure. The requirement relating to voltage is not applicable to test cells and batteries at fully discharged states.

Test T5: External short circuit

38.3.4.5

The cell or battery to be tested shall be shall be heated for a period of time necessary to reach a homogeneous stabilized temperature of 57±4 °C, measured on the external case. This period of time depends on the size and design of the cell or battery and should be assessed and documented. If this assessment is not feasible, the exposure time shall be at least 6 hours for small cells and small batteries, and 12 hours for large cells and large batteries. Then the cell or battery at 57±4 °C shall be subjected to one short circuit condition with a total external resistance of less than 0.1 ohm.

This short circuit condition is continued for at least one hour after the cell or battery external case temperature has returned to 57± 4 °C, or in the case of the large batteries, has decreased by half of the maximum temperature increase observed during the test and remains below that value.

The short circuit and cooling down phases shall be conducted at least at ambient temperature.

Cells and batteries meet this requirement if their external temperature does not exceed 170 °C and there is no disassembly, no rupture and no fire during the test and within six hours after the test.

Test T6: impact/Crush

 

Test procedure- Impact (applicable to cylindrical cells not less than 18.0 mm in diameter)

The test sample cell or component cell is to be placed on a fl at smooth surface. A

15.8 mm ± 0.1 mm diameter, at least 6 cm long, or the longest dimension of the cell, whichever is greater, Type 3 16 stainless steel bar is to be placed across the centre of the sample. A 9.1 kg± 0.1 kg mass is to be dropped from a height of61 ± 2.5 cm at the intersection of the bar and sample in a controlled manner using a near frictionless, vertical sliding track or channel with minimal drag on the falling mass. The vertical track or channel used to guide the falling mass shall be oriented 90 degrees from the horizontal supporting surface.

The test sample is to be impacted with its longitudinal axis parallel to the flat surface and perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the 15.8 mm ± 0.1 mm diameter curved surface lying across the centre of the test sample. Each sample is to be subjected to only a single impact.

Test Procedure- Crush (applicable to prismatic, pouch, coin/button cells and cylindrical cells less than 18.0 mm in diameter)

A ce ll or component cell is to be crushed between two fiat surfaces. The crushing is to be gradual with a speed of approximately 1.5 cm/s at the first point of contact. The crushing is to be continued until the first of the three options below is reached.

(a) The applied force reaches 13 kN ± 0.78 kN;

Example: The force shall be app lied by a hydraulic ram with a 32 mm diameter piston until a pressure of 17 MPa is reached on the hydraulic ram.

(b) The voltage of the cell drops by at least 100 mV; or

(c) The cell is deformed by 50% or more of its original thickness.

Once the maximum pressure has been obtained, the voltage drops by 100m V or more, or the cell is deformed by at least 50% of its original thickness, the pressure shall be released.

A prismatic or pouch cell shall be crushed by applying the force to the widest side. A button/coin cell shall be crushed by app lying the force on its flat surfaces. For cylindrical cells, the crush force shall be app lied perpendicular to the longitudinal axis.

Each test cell or component cell is to be subjected to one crush only. The test sample shall be observed for a further 6 h. The test shall be conducted using test cells or component cells that have not previously been subjected to other tests.

Cells and component cells meet this requirement if their external temperature does not exceed 170 °C and there is no disassembly and no fire during the test and within six hours after this test.

Test T. 7: Overcharge

38.3.4.7

The charge current shall be twice the manufacturer's recommended maximum continuous charge current. The minimum voltage of the test shall be as follows:

(a) when the manufacturer's recommended charge voltage is not more than 18 V, the minimum voltage of the test shall be the lesser of two times the maximum charge voltage of the battery or 22 V.

(b) when the manufacturer's recommended charge voltage is more than 18 V, the minimum voltage of the test shall be 1.2 times the maximum charge voltage.

Tests are to be conducted at ambient temperature. The duration of the test shall be 24 hours.

Rechargeable batteries meet this requirement if there is no disassembly and no fire during the test and within seven days after the test.

Test T.8: Forced discharge

38.3.4.8

Each cell shall be forced discharged at ambient temperature by connecting it in series with a 12V D.C. power supply at an initial current equal to the maximum discharge current specified by the manufacturer.

The specified discharge current is to be obtained by connecting a resistive load of the appropriate size and rating in series with the test cell. Each cell shall be forced discharged for a time interval (in hours) equal to its rated capacity divided by the initial test current (in ampere).

Primary or rechargeable cells meet this requirement if there is no disassembly and no fire during the test and within seven days after the test.

 

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